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Terms Definitions
Epistemology The theory of knowledge.
Expert bias (cognitive bias) Experts and lay people alike are subject to a variety of sources of cognitive bias in making assessments. Some of these sources of bias are as follows:
overconfidence, anchoring, availability, representativeness, satisficing, unstated assumptions, coherence. A fuller description of sources of cognitive bias in expert and lay elicitation processes is available in Dawes (1988).
Extended facts Knowledge from other sources than science, including local knowledge, citizens' surveys, anecdotal information, and the results of investigative journalism. Inclusion of extended facts in environmental assessment is one of the key principles of Post-Normal Science.
Extended peer communities Participants in the quality assurance processes of knowledge production and assessment in Post-Normal Science, including all stakeholders engaged in the management of the problem at hand.
Extrapolation The inference of unknown data from known data, for instance future data from past data, by analyzing trends and making assumptions.
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